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Sachsen-Weimar was a rather small Duchy until 1690, when it was combined with the Duchies Sachsen-Jena and in 1741 with Sachsen-Eisenach. This much larger and powerful Duchy was promoted to Grand-Ducy by the Vienna Congress in 1815. At the same time the new Grand-Duke received a large part of the Duchy of Sachsen for his help against Napoleon. Since 1903 the addition 'Weimar' was removed and the state became the Grand-Duchy of Sachsen (the old Sachsen was now a province of Prussia) until 1920 when it was incorporated in the new State of Thüringen

The arms show in the first quarter the barred lion of Thüringen. Thüringen was ruled by the Dukes of Thüringen-Hessen until 1247 and since it has been part of Sachsen and most rulers over (parts of) Sachsen from the Wettin dynasty used the striped lion in their arms.
The second quarter shows the lion of the County Meissen, also one of the original possessions of the Wettin dynasty.
The third quarter shows the arms of the County of Hennenberg combined with the arms of the Estate of Arenshaugk. The County Hennenberg is also one of the oldest possessions of the Wettin dynasty, but the arms of Arenshaugk stand for the Neustadter Kreis, one of the additions to the Sachsen-Weimar in 1815.
The fourth quarter combines the lion of the Lordship of Blankenhain and the arms of the Tautenburg estate. Both areas were part of Sachsen until 1815.
The escutcheon shows the arms of Sachsen proper.

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Literature : Information provided by Kees Kooij